Water-Based Adhesive:

Vinyl with a water-based adhesive typically is a low-cost solution for either indoor or short-term outdoor graphic applications.
Avoid wet application when applying vinyl with water-based adhesive as this will interfere with the bonding process to the substrate.

Solvent-Based Adhesive:

Vinyl with a solvent-based adhesive is designed for more demanding and longer term applications. The components of this adhesive are combined using solvents, allowing a structurally stronger adhesive that is more resistant to chemicals, cleaning agents and wider temperature ranges.
Another important attribute is the ability to wet apply graphics without worry of the adhesive losing it's bond to the substrate.

Source: Orafol America